THE SUMMARY BACKGROUND OF RAKHAING NATION
AND ARAKAN LIBERATION PARTY (ALP)
I. Who is Rakhaing (Arakanese) & where is Rakhaing Nation (Arakan)?
The word ‘Rakhaing’ is derived from the Pali word ‘Rakha or Rakkhita’ that means ‘Conservation’. That’s why, the Rakhaing denotes the name of the society of the people who preserve and protect their own race, religion, norms and culture.
Rakhaing Nation (Arakan) is situated – Burma in the east, Chin Hill in the northeast, India in the north, Bangladesh in the northwest, and Bay of Bengal in the west & south. A long range of Rakhaing Roma is lying as a barrier between Rakhaingpray (Rakhaing Nation) & Burma. Total area of Rakhaingpray (Arakan) is about 47,900 square kilometers and total population is nearly 5 millions. As most people know, Rakhaing Nation was not a part of Burma but was an independent kingdom which had sovereignty until 1784 AD and was one of the most prosperous countries of south east Asia in 6th & 17th century and then was very flourishing and famous in trade & commercial link with various nations around the world as well. According to the Rakhaing chronicles records, total of over 250 kings of Rakhaing dynasty and ruled Rakhaingpray for long time of over 5000 years. This history of Rakhaings has to go back to 3000 BC. King Marayu was the first Dhanyawaddy, the first city & the first dynasty of Rakhaing Nation (Arakan).
The long dynasties of Rakhaing Kingdom are as follow:
1. 1st Dhanyawaddy dynasty (BC 3325-1507)
2. 2nd Dhanyawaddy dynasty (BC 1507-580)
3. 3rd Dhanyawaddy dynasty (BC 580- AD 326)
4. Vesali dynasty (AD 327-818)
5. Laymro dynasty (AD 818-1404)
6. Mrauk-U dynasty (AD 1430-1784)
The period of Mrauk-U was famously known as the Golden Mrauk-U of Rakhiang Kingdom.This Kingdom, which is now a mere province in the so-called Union of Burma, has been under the Burmese imperialist oppression since 31st December 1784 when Burmese king Bodawphaya invaded and occupied the Rakhaingpray. After 40 years of Burmese rule, the British (East India Company) started to annex Burma in 1824. In February 1826, Burmese handed over Rakhaingpray (Arakan) to the British by the treaty of Randabo. Since the falling off Mrauk-U dynasty in December 1784, the sovereign power of Rakhaing Nation is degraded into the yoke of colony and slavery of aliens as below:
From AD 1784-1824 Burmese colony
AD 1826-1942 British colony
AD 1942-1945 Japanese colony
AD 1945-1948 British colony
AD 1948-till today remaining Burmese colony
In more than two hundred years of slavery, our literature, culture, norms, tradition, heritage and invaluable Royal records and documents were lost and disappeared day by day especially under Burmese colonial rule.
II. Emergence of the Arakan Liberation Party
In December 1784, Burmese worries illegally annexed the Rakhaing Kingdom and they destroyed huge culture heritage and wealth, since then, the Rakhaing Kingdom became a protectorate under Burmese colonialists. Later, the lives of Rakhaing people have deteriorated day by day because of Burmese imperialist oppression. Nevertheless, the firm imprint of the past history of the glorious Rakhaing Kingdom still remains in their mind. The Rakhaing people have serious aspirations to restore their own sovereignty that even lost for over the past 20 decades. This aspiration can never be removed from the heart of Rakhaing nationals. Inspired with patriotism, generation by generation, Rakhaing people are continuously struggling against the Burmese imperialists for the liberation of Rakhaing Nation and nationals form the yoke of colonial slavery. Due to brutal oppression by the Burmese successive imperialist rulers, Rakhaing nationals are still uneducated, poor and undeveloped despite long duration of the Rakhaing revolution of resistance to the Burmese colonialists since 1784. However, the inborn spiritual power of Rakhaing people has not been effaced. This power inspired the emergence of Arakan Liberation Party (ALP) that was successfully established at Hlaing Township in Rangoon. A 15-members Central Committee of the ALP was unanimously made up of an active group of Rakhaing patriot youths. And Mr. Khaing Pray Thein was the first president of ALP.
III. The first Movement of ALP
ALP first obtained an agreement of assistance from the Karen National Union (KNU) to form the Arakan Liberation Army (ALA), an armed-wing of ALP. Then on 26th November 1968 while ALP personnel were trying to do organizing people, recruiting manpower and collecting arms & ammunitions, the Burmese army arrested Mr. Khai Ray Khai, Central Committee member of ALP along with 9 associates at Sittwe, the capital of Arakan State in Burma for the first time.Later, on 20th December 1968 Mr. Khaing Soe Naing, General Secretary of ALP was arrested by the Burmese army at Rathedaung Township, Rakhaing State in Burma. After those arrests, Mr. Khaing Moe Lunn, asst. General Secretary and some other members of ALP were also arrested in Rangoon. In point of fact, only Mr. Khaing Pray Thein, president of ALP remained in the KNU area. As a result, the party’s organizing and political activities were totally stopped. The imperialist enemy oppressed and tortured the captives in various manners in prison. Fortunately, although they were held in captivity for years, they were eventually set free from prison.
IV. The Second Formation of ALP
In 1971-72, the captives were respectively released from prison under consideration of amnesty. As soon as he was discharged from prison, Mr. Khaing Moe Lunn left for Komura to meet KNU leaders in order to re-form ALP and ALA. In 1973-74, the ALP and ALA headed by Mr. Khaing Moe Lunn could be re-formed by the help of KNU president Mhan Ba San and General Mya. Mr. Khaing Ba Kyaw was General Secretary of ALP at that time. In spite of various hindrances and difficulties, within two years, over 300 cadres of ALA
personnel were gathered and received the political and military training. In June 1976, 120 strength of ALP column steered by Mr. Khiang Moe Lunn, President of ALP and Chief Commander of ALA, made a long march to the fatherland, Rakhaingpray (Arakan Nation).After passing through Thai-Burma border, Karen State, Karenni State, Shan State, Kachin State and Sagaing Division inside Burma, the ALP troops entered between Chin State of Burma and Manipur State of India. In April and May 1977 they faced confrontation with the Indo-Burmese armies and started gunfire with them there. Throughout the long march in Chin state of Burma and Manipur state of India, they had to open fire with the said armies more than 20 heavy gun-battles.Due to more than 20 heavy gunfights, ALP troops were split up into small groups and then over ten soldiers of ALA including President Khaing Moe Lunn were killed, around fifty arrested, nearly forty laid down their arms to Indian and Burmese armies, and over twenty lost on the way during those heavy gun-battles respectively. From the arrest and surrender of ALP soldiers, over 30 were brutally shot death by the Burmese army without any trial and 45 were court-martialed and charged with state rebellion case under Article no.122 (1) and (2). Of them, 11 people were sentenced to death and the rest 43 to life imprisonment. In this time also, all activities of the party such as political, military and organizing etc: were absolutely stopped again.
V. The third Formation of ALP
In 1980, all ALP personnel were released from Mandalay jail under consideration of amnesty. In 1981, ALP and ALA headed by existing President Khai Ray Khai was re-formed in Komura area where the KNU Special Regiment (101) stationed. ALP got some assistance from the KNU. Now we (the ALP) are joining hands in good co-operation with KNU, National Democratic Front (NDF), Democratic Alliance of Burma (DAB) and National Council of the Union of Burma (NCUB) and then actively working in Arakan (Rakhiangpray) and along the borders such as Thai-Burma, Indo-Arakan and Bangladesh-Arakan bordering areas.
VI. The so-called Union of Burma
On 4th January 1948, Burma became an independent state from the British according to the unity of all nationalities and the basic principles of the Panglong Agreement adopted by General Aung San and nationalities’ leaders. Although they had agreed to build the genuine Federal Union that all nationalities must have equal rights of their respective nationals politically, the so-called Union of Burma was constituted and state power has been monopolized by the majority of Burmese ruling classes since independence. They (Burmese rulers) always deny giving for national rights of other nationalities and accepting for the Panglong Agreement that was made on 12th February 1947. When Burma was occupied by the Japanese, Rakhaing national leaders and entire Rakhaing people organized armee-resistance to the Japanese with sacrificing of numerous lives. When the British reentered after the Japanese Fascist had been driven out, the Rakhaing people joined hands with all
other nationalities in the struggle of independence. In this struggle, Rakhaing never put their national interest only in the front, but always worked for the liberation of entire Burma. Nevertheless, under the so-called Union of Burma also known as Myanmar, the Rakhaing people who carried the heritage of an Independent Kingdom were not given even an autonomous state. Due to those circumstances above-mentioned, more then 50-years-long civil war, which deteriorates the political stabilities and economic development, has been going on. In 1962, General Ne Win captured State Power in military coup and also his descendant General Saw Maung seized again by that way in 1988. Yet, they couldn’t implement their plans and only political and economic crises are increasing day by day due to the oppressive imperialists and military dictatorship.
VII. The stand of ALP
The ALP believes that the current crisis in Burma will carry to the Independence or Genuine Federal Union, which is the goal of all nationalities. However, the Burmese military rulers seem to retain control of the power so far.The ALP therefore hopes that it will be no longer to restore democracy and human rights in Burma if democracy-loving countries’ forces help us in every kinds of way.
To regain sovereign power of Rakhaingpray (Arakan Nation) that lost in 1784.
The Aim & Objectives
To establish an independent state of the Rakhaing Republic in which must be guarantee for nation freedom & human development of entire people living together within the Fatherland (Rakhaingpray); and
To build neo-life of entire people within the Fatherland in which must be full democracy, unity, peace and development without exploitation.
Arakan Liberation Party (ALP)